To get a bit more perspective on the concept let's take a look at an interview with 'anti-anthropologist' Professor Maurice Bloch, as quoted in Eurozine (click to read)
Maurice Bloch: "To that I would add one thing that I think is very important. That is that in Madagascar, the development experts are being replaced by conservationists who wield tremendous power. They are largely motivated by some general kind of ideologies about ecology in the world, about preserving forests or some species, which is obviously a good idea. But what they really want is to have large reserves in places like Madagascar. They want to turn the whole country into a national park. Countries like Madagascar are hugely indebted. And European and North-American countries perform a kind of blackmail, which they call "swapping debt for nature". If you'll have natural parks then we'll drop the debt. And of course, the Malagassy government can't resist. The Malagassy elite are quite happy to have as many natural parks as the wealthy countries like, because the parks bring experts and the experts bring their money. But for the local people, it means that their land is just being taken away. They are not allowed to cultivate their land anymore. And they say, quite rightly, "the land has gone to the Americans". Villagers see their field on the other side of the fence; if they go to their field they will be fined or imprisoned, while they see American or European natural scientists wandering around on it. It's a terrible situation.
"Those anthropologists who work there have denounced very strongly what is going on in ecology. But they find that because of the power and self-righteousness of the ecological discourse, it is difficult to get heard. "
Now think about China's connection to the US in terms of debt.
This is US law:
Global Environmental Protection Assistance Act of 1989
Title 22, Chapter 32, Subchapter I, Part VII, Section 2281
Sec. 2281. - ''Debt-for-nature exchange'' defined
For purpose of this part, the term ''debt-for-nature exchange'' means the cancellation or redemption of the foreign debt of the government of a country in exchange for -
(1) that government's making available local currencies (including through the issuance of bonds) which are used only for eligible projects involving the conservation or protection of the environment in that country (as described in section 2283 of this title); or
(2) that government's financial resource or policy commitment to take certain specified actions to ensure the restoration, protection, or sustainable use of natural resources within that country; or
(3) a combination of assets and actions under both paragraphs (1) and (2)
UN AGENDA 21: CLOSE OFF NATURE. MOVE HUMANS INTO MEGA CITIES. INVENTORY, MONITOR, ASSESS, CONTROL.